Package of Practices for Chickpea.

Package of Practices for Chickpea.

Cultivation of Chickpea-

The chickpea is known by so many names in India like Bengal gram or gram or chana etc.Its botanical name is Cicer arietinum and the family is Luguminoceae or fabaceae.Chickpea is major  Rabi season leguminous crop. Which is grown mostly in semi dry areas? There are so many uses of the chickpea so its cultivation is done in many areas. It may be used as pulse, flour, or in making sweets, its green leaves are used in vegetable and its green grain used in eating, its roasted grain is also eaten.
  • Soil & Preparation of Land-
  • The chickpea can be sown in loamy to medium soil. Plough the land two three times and level the land.Now the land is ready for sowing
  • Time of sowing- it can be sown middle of the September to end of October.
  • Method of sowing- Sowing is done in line by use of bull or tractor operated seed drill. So that it will be very easy to control weed in the crop in comparison to broadcasting sowing.
  • Seed treatment- The most important disease in the chickpea is wilt due to this the plant dried fully and the yield is reduced to a maximum level. To control the wilt. The seed should be treated with carbendazim at the rate of 2 gm/kg of seed. For example 100 kg seed is being used for sowing one hectare then 200 gram carbendazim fungicide should be mixed with the seed for the seed treatment.
  • To control insect in the chickpea the seed should be treated with thiomethoxzam 70WP @ 3gm/kg of seed.
  • For nutrient the chickpea seed should be treated with Rhizobium and PSB @ 10 gm/kg of seed.
  • The chickpea is a pulse crop. In root of the chickpea, a bacteria is found which convert the atmospheric nitrogen to available nitrogen to the plant. So these rhizobium bacteria provide nitrogen nutrient to the plant. That why seed treatment is done by the Rhizobium culture .So there is no need to give fertilizers in standing crop. Chickpea crop need fertilizer up to sometime of the growth after sowing the seed.
  • And the PSB ( Phosphorus Solubilizing Bacterium) culture is used to provide Soil Phosphorus available to the plant for its growth.
  • Distance for sowing- plant to plant and row to row distance-
  • The distance is kept 30*10 cm*cm means row to row 30 cm and plant to plant 10 cm.
  • In case of Kabuli chana the distance should be 45*10 cm*cm
  • Seed Rate- for the small grain varieties- example- JG-130, JG-74 JG-3222, JG-12, JG-16, JG-63 the seed rate is 65-75 Kg/Ha.
  • For the medium size chickpea varieties example- jaki-9218, vishal. For these varieties the seed rate is 75-80 kg/ha.
  • For the Kabuli chickpea varieties example- JGK-1, JGK-2 and JGK-3. For these varieties the seed rate is 100 kg/ha.
  • Manure & Fertilizers-
  • Farm yard Manure (well rotten dung manure) should be used at the rate of 6-10 t/acre in the field 15 days before sowing.
  • At the time of sowing 8 kg/ha nitrogen and 32 kg/ha phosphorus should be applied in the field.
  • 8 kg/sulphar or 50 kg/ha zipsum can be used at the time of sowing for better yield.
  • Varieties of the chickpea-
Variety
Yield (q/ha)
Remark
JG-14
20-25
Early variety
JAKI 9218
18-20
JG-63
20-25
JG-412
18-20
Early variety
JG-130
18
Well suited to dry area
JG-16
18-20
Tolerant to wilt
JG-11
15-18
Wilt resistant
JG-322
18-20
Wilt resistant
JG-218
15-18
JG-74
15-18
Late Variety, resistant to wilt
JG-315
15-18
Most famous, wilt resistant
Variety of Kabuli chickpea
Bold Grain Varieties
 
Variety
Yield (q/h)
Remark
JGK-1
15-18
Late variety
JGK-2
15-18
Early variety
JGK-3
15-18
Test weight is good
  • Weeding- in chickpea the weeding may be done manually by the help of khurpi or Dora.
  • In case of chemical control the pendimethylene 3 L/ha or Alachlor @ 300 ml/ha can be used as pre emergence weedicide (pre-emergence- spray the weedicide after sowing within 1-3 days before the germination of chickpea).
  • Irrigation- if only one irrigation is available then the irrigation should be given before the flowering, 45-60 days after of sowing.
  • If two irrigation is available then first irrigation should be done before the flowering and second irrigation should be done after podding at the time of grain filling stage.
  • Topping- to take better growth in the chickpea the top of the chickpea plant should be cut after 30-40 days after sowing. It will profuse the the branching and fruiting will be higher.
  • Insect control-
  • Mostly in the chickpea the following insect damage the crop-
  • Pod Borer – This is the most dangerous insect in crop it damage the pod at the time of grain formation because the grain is green, sweet and tender at this time so can be eaten by the larva of the insect. the larva of the insect insert in the pod and damage the grain severely. this can be control by the use of Methomyl 40%SP @ 300-400 gm/acre.
  • Emamectin Benzoate 5% SG@ 100 gm/ acre can be used.
  • In case of heavy damage in the crop the chlorantraniliprole 18.5%SC (Coragen -DuPont Company) and cover (Dhanuka Company) @ 50 ml. /acre can be used.
  • These insecticide may be used as per of the infestation of the pod borer insect.
  •  Cutting, Threshing and Storage of Chickpea- when entire the leaves become yellow brown then harvesting is done. Keep the crop for some time in the field. After some time threshing is done either by bull or by threshing machine. Take care at the time of storage; it is damage by the storage insect so much.
  • Its rate are good and its straw is eaten by animal with so much interest. And crop is also sale at good rate.

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